Psychosis is defined as a brief loss of contact with reality. Generally, psychosis includes inaccurate or false beliefs about what is taking place or who one is (delusions), and/or seeing or hearing things that are not there (hallucinations).
Medical problems can cause psychosis, including alcohol and certain other drugs, brain diseases, cysts and tumors, dementia, epilepsy, HIV, prescription drugs (such as steroids and stimulants), and stroke. Psychosis may also be found in some people with bipolar disorder or severe depression, some personality disorders, and most people with schizophrenia.
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According to the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), approximately 2.2 million people in the United States have schizophrenia. The National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI) estimates that schizoaffective disorder affects about one in every 100 people. The prevalence of delusional disorder is estimated to be around 0.03 percent.
Some types of psychosis include:
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